Cell-cell communication

crucial for proper perception and response to the microenvironment

The proper perception and respons to the microenvironment is a crucial cellular mechanism in development, tissue repair, immunity and tissue homeostasis. Signal molecules secreted or expressed on the surface of a cells allow the reception and response by other cells. This process is usually coordinated by the binding of a signal molecule to a corresponding receptor and is essential to ensure many single cells in an organisme to properly work together. To understand key pathways for tissue-specific functions in variety of signals, signals receptors, transducers and effectors can be of great value for health science researchers, professionals and students.


View Cell Signaling Antibodies

Signal Transmission

signaling molecules initiate specific signal transduction pathways


Each cell has the ability to receive and respond to extracellular signaling which ususally follows four distinct steps. First of all, the signaling cell synthesizes and releases the signal molecule which is then transported to the target cell. For activation of the proper response, the signal molecule binds to the correspinding receptor on the surface of the target cell which in turn initiates a very specific signal transduction pathway. 

A great variety of agents can work as signaling molecule, for example pathogens, carbon dioxid levels or biosynthezised signal molecules such as hormones. There is a wide variation in their  fundamental properties (e.g. solubilty, state of aggregation). Signal molecules that are released by membrane-diffusion, exocytosis or cell damage from the signaling cell are specifically synthezised through a large variety of biosynthetic pathways. Some of these signal rely on activation by proteolytic cleavage or other modifications and others remain at the surface of the signaling cell (juxtacrine signaling).

The recognition of the signaling molecule (ligand) usually occurs by binding to a corresponding receptor. However, some receptor can also respond to physical signals (e.g. light). The initial binding of the ligand/activation of the receptor by a physical signal leads to the tramsmission of the signalinduced by a conformational change of the receptor molecule. While enzymatic receptors have enzymatic activity upon activation, channel receptors show opening or closing activity. Some receptors do not harbor enzymatic or channel activity themselves but are linked to specific enzymes or transporters to transmit the signal. In any case, the activation of the receptor leads to the transmission of the signal and the activation of the signal transduction cascade allowing the propagation of the signal through the cell.  

Signaling within, between and amongst cells

different ways to communicate

Cell-cell communication can be transmitted via direct contact, over short distance as well as large distance. In summary, signaling can occur via five signaling pathways. The autocrine, juxtacrine, intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine signaling pathway each of which is defined by its individual path from signal molecule to target cell.

  • intracrine signaling: the signal molecules are synthesized by the target cell itself
  • autocrine signaling: the signal molecules are synthesized by the target cell but are secreted and induce signal response on the surface of the target cell
  • juxtacrine signaling: the target cells are in close proximity (adjacent), the signal can be transmitted by protein or lipid components along the cell membrane
  • paracrine signaling: target cells are in the vincinity as in case of neurotransmitters
  • endocrine signaling: the signal molecules are e.g. hormones that can travel long distance through the blood vessels  

Top Selling Cell Signaling Antibodies

anti-ACTH mouse monoclonal, 2F6, purified
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anti-Adiponectin mouse monoclonal, A-492, purified
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  • Mouse monoclonal
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anti-Adrenocorticotropic Hormone rabbit polyclonal, serum
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anti-Bombesin rabbit polyclonal, serum
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anti-alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone rabbit polyclonal, serum
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